Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 92.7 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the world’s 14th-most-populous country, and the ninth-most-populous Asian country.

A clickable map of Vietnam exhibiting its provinces.

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Population (2016): 92,700,000

Density: 276.03/km2 (714.9/sq mi)
GDP total (nominal 2016 estimate): $219.379 billion[/one_half]

GDP per capita (nominal 2016 estimate): $2,371

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GDP total (nominal 2016 estimate): $219.379 billion[/one_half]

GDP per capita (nominal 2016 estimate): $2,371

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Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976.

Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast.

Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, from 111 BC to AD 939. An independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia, until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, eventually expelling the French in 1954. Thereafter, Vietnam was divided politically into two rival states, North and South Vietnam. Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

Vietnam was then unified under a communist government but remained impoverished and politically isolated. In 1986, the government initiated a series of economic and political reforms which began Vietnam’s path towards integration into the world economy. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with all nations. Since 2000, Vietnam’s economic growth rate has been among the highest in the world, and, in 2011, it had the highest Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. It is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Vietnam remains one of the world’s four remaining one-party socialist states officially espousing communism.

 

Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces . There are also five municipalities, which are administratively on the same level as provinces.

 

Lai Châu Province Hà Giang Province Lào Cai Province Điện Biên Province China Laos Thailand Cambodia Sơn La Province Yên Bái Province Cao Bằng Province Bắc Kạn Province Tuyên Quang Province Lạng Sơn Province Quảng Ninh Province Thái Nguyên Province Phú Thọ Province Hai Phong Province Thái Bình Province Nam Định Province Bắc Giang Province Ha Noi Hòa Bình Province Ninh Bình Province Thanh Hóa Province Nghệ An Province Hà Tĩnh Province Quảng Bình Province Quảng Trị Province Da Nang Bình Định Province Quảng Nam Province Quảng Ngãi Province Kon Tum Province Gia Lai Province Thừa Thiên-Huế Province Đắk Lắk Province Phú Yên Province Khánh Hòa Province Đắk Nông Province Ninh Thuận Province Lâm Đồng Province Bình Thuận Province Bình Phước Province Tây Ninh Province Bình Dương Province Đồng Nai Province Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu Province Ho Chi Minh City Long An Province Don Thap Province An Giang Province Kiên Giang Province Cà Mau Province Tiền Giang Province Cần Thơ Province Vĩnh Long Province Bến Tre Province Trà Vinh Province Hậu Giang Province Sóc Trăng Province Bạc Liêu Province Vĩnh Phúc Province Ha Noi Bắc Ninh Province Hải Dương Province Hưng Yên Province Hà Nam Province Vĩnh Phúc Province Ha Noi Bắc Ninh Province Hải Dương Province Hưng Yên Province Hà Nam Province

Geography

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

Topographic map of Vietnam.

Vietnam map of Köppen climate classification.

Vietnam is located on the eastern Indochina Peninsula between the latitudes 8° and 24°N, and the longitudes 102° and 110°E. It covers a total area of approximately 331,210 km2 (127,881 sq mi), making it almost the size of Germany. The combined length of the country’s land boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi), and its coastline is 3,444 km (2,140 mi) long. At its narrowest point in the central Quảng Bình Province, the country is as little as 50 kilometres (31 mi) across, though it widens to around 600 kilometres (370 mi) in the north. Vietnam’s land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country’s land area, and tropical forests cover around 42%.

The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai Province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam, standing 3,143 m (10,312 ft) high. Southern Vietnam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country’s arable land and 22% of its total forested land. The soil in much of southern Vietnam is relatively poor in nutrients.

The Red River Delta, a flat, roughly triangular region covering 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi), is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits. The delta, covering about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), is a low-level plain no more than 3 meters (9.8 ft) above sea level at any point. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances 60 to 80 meters (196.9 to 262.5 ft) into the sea every year.

Panoramic view

A panorama of Vietnam’s Hạ Long Bay, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Source: Wikipedia

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